Volume-Outcome Relationship in Penile Cancer Treatment: A Population Based Patterns of Care and Outcomes Study From Australia
Patel MI, Yuminaga Y, Bang A, Lawrentschuk N, Skyring T, Smith DP.
To study the patterns of care of penile cancer diagnosed in the state of New South Wales (NSW) over a 10 year period and determine factors that are associated with differences in survival.
Patients and methods
All invasive penile cancer diagnosed between 2001 and 2009 in NSW, Australia, were identified from the Central Cancer Registry. Records of treatment from the Admitted Patient Data Collection and deaths from the Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages were electronically linked. Predictors of receiving an inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models.
A total of 220 men were diagnosed with penile cancer over the 10 years from 69 centres. The median number of penile operations performed over 10 years was <4. Radical penile surgery (partial or total penectomy) was performed in 70% of the cases and the proportion of patients receiving radical surgery increased over time (P = 0.015). Only 53/220 men with invasive penile cancer received an ILND. Younger age and higher stage were the only factors that predicted whether ILND was performed. Overall survival (OS) was predicted by age, stage, marital status and co-morbidity status. Low centre volume decreased OS by 37% (HR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40-0.97]). For men who received ILND, low centre volume decreased OS by 60% (HR 0.40 [95% CI: 0.19-0.85]).
There is a decreasing trend for the use of conservative penile surgery and median centre volumes for penile cancer surgery in NSW are low. A decrease in overall survival is observed in men treated in lower volume surgery centres.