||Treatment given in addition to initial (primary) treatment. For
example, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy.
||An algorithm is a series of finite instructions. It is a method
in which a series of defined instructions for completing a
||Treatments used instead of conventional (standard)
||Health services provided without the patient being admitted to
hospital. Also called outpatient care.
||Sampling of a small piece of tissue for laboratory
||A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or
tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a
condition or disease. A biomarker may be used to see how well the
body responds to a treatment for a disease or condition. Also
called molecular marker and signature molecule.
||Therapies that work with a patient's immune system to kill
cancer cells or help control side effects of other treatments.
||A type of radiotherapy where radioactive seeds are implanted to
||The use of drugs, vitamins, or other agents to try to reduce
the risk of, or delay the development or recurrence of,
||Treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells.
|Combined modality treatment
||The integration of two or more forms of treatment to combat
cancer, i.e. radiation and surgery, radiation and chemotherapy or
surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
||A range of approaches to care provision aimed at enhancing
quality of life, including (but not limited to) relaxation therapy,
music, art, prayer, visualisation, guided imagery, massage,
aromatherapy and dietary therapies, and other socialisation
programs aimed at good health. Also called integrative
||A series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body taken
from different angles; the pictures are created by a computer
linked to an x-ray machine. Also called CAT scan, computed
tomography scan, computerised axial tomography scan, and
||Surgical removal of as much of a tumour as possible. Debulking
may increase the chance that chemotherapy or radiation therapy will
kill all the tumour cells. It may also be done to relieve symptoms
or help the patient live longer. Also called tumour debulking.
||Monitoring a person's health over time after treatment. This
includes keeping track of the health of people who participate in a
clinical study or clinical trial for a period of time, both during
the study and after the study ends.
||Information about specific genes, including variations and gene
expression, in an individual or in a certain type of tissue. A
genetic profile may be used to help diagnose a disease or learn how
the disease may progress or respond to treatment with drugs or
||Drugs that kill or slow the growth of cancer cells by altering
the production or activity of hormones in the body. Typically used
in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.
||See complementary therapies
||Machinery that produces beams of X-rays or high-energy
electrons that are focused onto a tumour within the body.
Also known as a linac.
||The edge or border of the tissue removed in cancer surgery. The
margin is described as 'negative' or 'clear' when the pathologist
finds no cancer cells at the edge of the tissue, suggesting that
all of the cancer has been removed. The margin is described as
'positive' or 'involved' when the pathologist finds cancer cells at
the edge of the tissue, suggesting that all of the cancer has not
||A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked
to a computer are used to create detailed pictures of areas inside
the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and
diseased tissue. MRI makes better images of organs and soft tissue
than other scanning techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or
x-ray. MRI is especially useful for imaging the brain, the spine,
the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones. Also called
magnetic resonance imaging, NMRI, and nuclear magnetic resonance
||A nomogram is a graphical calculating device intended as a
general purpose device designed to perform a specific calculation
with tables of values effectively built in. In cancer, nomograms
are used to predict things like survival time based on individual
||The active total care of patients whose disease is not
responsive to curative treatment. Control of pain, other symptoms,
and psychological, social and spiritual problems is paramount. The
goal of palliative care is to achieve the best quality of life for
patients and their families.
||The branch of medicine concerned with diagnosing the disease,
especially its histology, biochemistry or cytology.
||A procedure in which a small amount of radioactive glucose
(sugar) is injected into a vein and a scanner is used to make
detailed, computerized pictures of areas inside the body where the
glucose is used. Because cancer cells often use more glucose than
normal cells, the pictures can be used to find cancer cells in the
body. Also called positron emission tomography scan.
||The culturally-sensitive provision of psychological, social and
||The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays,
neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and
shrink tumours. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body
(external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive
material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation
therapy). Systemic radiotherapy uses a radioactive substance, such
as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that travels in the blood to
tissues throughout the body. Also called irradiation and radiation
|Sentinel node biopsy
||Removal and examination of the sentinel node(s) (the first
lymph node(s) to which cancer cells are likely to spread from a
primary tumour). To identify the sentinel lymph node(s), the
surgeon injects a radioactive substance, blue dye, or both near the
tumour. The surgeon then uses a scanner to find the sentinel lymph
node(s) containing the radioactive substance or looks for the lymph
node(s) stained with dye. The surgeon then removes the sentinel
node(s) to check for the presence of cancer cells.
|Synoptic pathology reporting
||The synoptic report arranges pathology information in a logical
way that acts as a checklist for pathologists and provides managing
clinicians with ready access to the most important pathology
||A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are
bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echo
patterns are shown on the screen of an ultrasound machine, forming
a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. Also called
||Drugs that block or slow the growth of cancer cells by
interfering with or blocking particular molecules or receptors
involved in cancer development.
||A treatment plan or outline. In clinical trials, a protocol is
the plan for using an experimental procedure or treatment.